You Might be Overplaying the Competence Card: Here’s Why

Trapeze school, New York

You might be overplaying the “Competence Card” at work — and this may sound completely counter-intuitive. Most of have a tendency to believe that proving our skill set, is the best way to establish ourselves at work.

However, that decision may not be enough to reach solid footing.

As a new manager at a telecommunications company, I was hired based upon both my education and previous experience. However, I would learn that this was not all that mattered when interacting team members. In fact, I learned that my biggest problem was projecting warmth. During a presentation course, I was told repeatedly that I failed to smile during my talks. This in itself, was not a problem. However, this tendency coupled with the type of information I normally presented (customer opinions) could cause me problems. When I saw the video playback, they were absolutely correct. My over-emphasis on appearing professional had essentially backfired.

According to research completed at Harvard, one of our core drivers — safety — may be alerted when we form our initial impressions of others. This, in turn can affect our ability to form needed relationships. Amy Cuddy (and her team) have revealed that there are two criteria that must be answered when making initial impressions:

1.) Can I trust this person?
2.) Can I respect this person?

Interestingly, the notion of “trustworthiness” appears to take precedence over the latter. This can have a tremendous impact on our work lives —including key interactions such as employment interviews, presentations and networking opportunities.

Apparently trust trumps competence.

Who knew?

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist.  She is the Director of Organizational Development at Allied Talent. Their new tool, The Alliance Diagnostic examines how organizational culture supports entrepreneurial thinking and career growth.

 

2015 in Review: I’m Grateful for the Bumps in the Road

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I could write a long, rambling post about the work life elements that were a healthy challenge in 2015. However, that would really not serve you well. Personally, this was a “growth year” career-wise. I won’t sugar-coat it — offering you a tale that every aspect included a “silver lining”. The path was not that forgiving. I’m going to be honest. I explored and took missteps. I hit a few intersections and became impatient for the “light to change”. There were other moments where I lost my sense of direction, before righting the compass.

However, I am also grateful for much of it.

Progress of any kind — whether for an individual or an organization — is often hard fought.

In everyone’s path there should be a moment when you pause and ask the question: “What is my career mission?” (During the past 12 months I have pressed that question to the limit.) I have looked toward what I would hope to accomplish over the next few years, while balancing what I was willing to give up. These choices were daunting — yet completely career affirming. I’ve experienced first-hand, that if you find nothing in your work day touches that core mission, you’ll likely disengage. Shifting into reverse wasn’t going to “cut it”. Realizing this was an important moment.

I remain committed to my core career mission: “To help build healthy, sustainable workplaces.” I take this mission very personally. As a psychologist, I view the “engagement crisis” as a very personal failure.

The upside:

  • I see the challenge more clearly. For years, we all have been reading about the engagement crisis within organizations today. We’ve measured and re-measured our pain. However, we may be neglecting core elements that halt our progress forward. One issue: Developing organizational programs that once deployed, do not fight engagement. This isn’t entirely into focus. However, I’m glimpsing patterns that may solve the puzzle. I’m grateful for this.
  • Risk is central. I’m learning every day, that measured risk is a part of a meaningful career path. I didn’t always believe this. However, in the 21st century, we all have to re-calibrate our paths more frequently. Because we (and our workplaces) evolve, we find ourselves at inflection points that require decisions that are inherently risky. This happens to most of us. (Do I share that I am unhappy? Is sharing my idea going to help or hurt my path? Should I turn down a role that will not align with my career mission?)
  • Perfection is not the standard to create impact. We all harbor doubt. When launching into a new role, project or task — confidence can become the stumbling block that feels much like a brick wall. Remember that while you may feel unprepared — it’s likely that what you know is enough to impact the situation. Perfection is not the standard. Moving the needle is. I’m grateful, that I can help move that needle.

Growth is never a smooth process. More likely, it arrives unannounced.

In fact, sometimes it is not apparent — until you take that long look back.

When you look back on 2015, what do you see?

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist.  She is the Director of Organizational Development at Allied Talent. Their new tool, The Alliance Diagnostic examines how organizational culture supports entrepreneurial thinking and career growth.

What Just Happened? Decoding the Job Interview

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There is plenty of advice out there concerning what to say and do, during an employment interview. However, I find there is little written about how to sort out the jumbled mess of feelings and observations that you are left with.  Even with the best of intentions and lists of potential questions — interviewing is not (and never will be) a perfect process. In some situations, you are not really sure what has actually transpired. In fact, you may leave feeling you know less about your potential future there, than when you began.

Over the years, I’ve experienced a number of job interviews. Interestingly, even with my training, I was a poor bet to predict the actual outcome. However, looking back, I could have nailed down the “gestalt” of the interview. This could have offered a few clues as to what might (or should) transpire next.

To be blunt, many organizations still do not have a clear structured interview process — and even if they do — the conversation might ramble into territories “off the grid”. Paying close attention to these moments may offer you needed clarity. I’m going to share a few of my interview experiences, including what was said and how I felt after reflecting on the interview. I’ll also let you know if I landed the role.

#1 – The Interview as a “Call for Help”
In many situations, organizations are not really sure what they need. You may have responded to a job posting, however when you arrive it’s clear the situation is quite fluid. Ultimately, their actual needs become cloudier as the conversation continues. My read: They are in flux — but at the same time the prospect of challenge and growth increases. Truth: If you end up in an interview smacking of this, inquire about what they need to accomplish right now. Size up whether or not you fill that need, and if you’d still like to pursue the relationship. Assess alignment and your chances from there. My scorecard with this scenario: Interviews 2; Adequate fit 0; Job Offers 0. (Satisfied with this outcome.)

#2 – Playing Close to the Cuff
During the job search process, some interviewers present as so professional, that it is quite difficult to get a read on them as a “human-being”. There is little feedback or emotion during the interview, and you have absolutely no idea where you stand. My read: Chances are you wouldn’t be there if you are not qualified. If this is your potential boss, you’ll likely need to be a self-starter. Truth: You won’t know, until you know. (I left with this is in mind, “I’m never going to step foot here again.”) My scorecard with this scenario: Interviews 1; Job Offers 1. (Surprise.)

#3 – The Passive Aggressive Interview
These interviews feel like a boxing match. The interviewer seems determined to show you every “wart” of the organization and wait to see if you will call their bluff. It’s almost as if you are running a race, and with each successive hurdle you sustain an injury. Truth: I feel as if the interviewer(s) want to be sure that you are willing to endure, what they have endured. My read: the organization is likely unhealthy. So, figure this fact into any decisions. My scorecard: Interviews 3; Invitations to return for follow-up 2 (Respectfully declined.); Job Offers 0.

#4 – The “Non-Interview”
This is really an endorsement for taking shorter-term projects, that could set you up to land a longer-term role. Personally, there have been situations where my career was either “in transition”, I was tied to a particular geographic location or the job market was simply very, very tough. My read: Part-time or project-based roles are great realistic job previews for both you and the employer. Truth: Your network is vital to find these gems. My read: Every workplace situation is essentially an interview, so gather as much information as possible. My scorecard: “Interviews” 3 ; Job Offers 2.

What scenarios have you encountered? What were your strategies to “decode” the interview? Share them here.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist. She is the Director of Organizational Development at Allied Talent

 

You Had the Power All Along — Utilizing Listening Techniques to Strengthen Process

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Taming the chaos of everyday work life can appear impossible.

“Re-mastering” how we work is often indicated. However, to make forward progress we must pause to listen to the heartbeat of the organization — then speak about problems openly. What is impeding the completion of your mission effectively? Are you deploying the needed changes to make that mission a reality?

In may cases, increased transparency can improve the strength of your process —  and this is dependent on one key skill — listening.

In the examination rooms at the Harbor-UCLA eye clinic, an organization “serving the under-served” , time was a precious commodity that couldn’t be tamed.  Backlogs of patients in dire need of surgical intervention were growing – and doctors were spending more time in the hallways of the hospital sifting through paperwork, than with the patients that needed their help.

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Patients were literally losing their sight, awaiting intervention. For many, it would seem that the help would arrive too late. (See the story here: http://toyota.us/1JAs28d.)

Harbor-UCLA partnered with Toyota to help them listen more closely to their own environment (and employees) to identify process solutions. Toyota’s process, called the Toyota Production System (TPS), empowers employees who work in a specific environment to identify problems and quickly work towards solutions — so improvement is within their grasp. In essence, employees can serve as the innovators, unlocking needed potential

Developed in the 1940s, Toyota’s socio-technical system involves harnessing small, continuous improvements to shape high quality work. It works with what is already “right” within an organization — and involves employees to refine how the work is completed. It is a process that allows built foundations to be respected, yet allows for needed change. In my career, I began to notice that active listening often held the key to helping organizations improve. As a consultant, I was required to pay close attention to what was happening on a daily basis. But, the organization also needed to listen to their own environment. In this way, employees and their realm of expertise could facilitate unlocking untapped potential.

I found many organizations were already on board with this — listening to employees concerning both customers and processes — and acting swiftly regarding what they heard. Those that didn’t place value on this knowledge base, would likely continue to struggle.

Listening to the pulse of your own environment is critical — examining its processes and the ultimate effect upon the clients you serve. Does the way the work unfolds maximize talent or hand-cuff progress? Are obstacles being thrown in the path of employees attempting to contribute?

Here are a few things to keep in mind:

  • Value an open, multi-functional conversation. There isn’t a single team that works in a vacuum. The quality of your work depends on the quality of communication among the teams that serve your clients, patients or customers. Ensure that the channels are wide-open.
  • Watch “hand-offs”. Delivery success often rests at the point where customers or processes move on to be served by another function. Examine how your team can make these transitions smoother. The strength of a relay rests on these moments.
  • LBWA. (Leadership by walking around) I’ve found that leadership can often inadvertently undermine progress once changes are instituted. The more leaders are removed from the work, the slower the progress. So — leaders must stay connected to employees and offer support.

Harbor-UCLA worked with Toyota and tamed time. They implemented simple, yet practical systems to help the clinic improve dramatically — allowing their dedicated staff to help more patients.

They made the commitment to listen to their own environment and improve.

With that, something precious has been saved.

Want to learn more about The Toyota Effect? Check out other videos in the Toyota Effect series here: http://toyota.us/1JAs28d. The stories they tell are quite remarkable. Toyota works with all kinds of organizations, including non-profits — see the  TSSC site for more information.

I have written this post in partnership with Toyota. The opinions that lie within are my own.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist. She is the Director of organizational Development at Allied Talent.  Their new tool, The Alliance Diagnostic examines how organizational culture supports entrepreneurial thinking and career growth.

Another Soft Skill We Forget: Self-Development Strategies

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I’m deep into the current season of The Voice. It is the only television show that I watch on an actual television. (NetFlix and my computer screen usually win my attention. See one my favorite Voice contestants perform below.)

What fascinates me most about The Voice is how these individuals have managed to invest their energy toward a path that emphasizes their strengths. It’s a risky road for sure — especially in the capricious entertainment industry. However, the rewards are there. The most common outcome, especially in younger participants, seems to be an increased level of confidence in their own skills as a performer. (Winning is not the only valued outcome that emerges.) The mentoring relationship, critical to The Voice, of course — hones the strengths these individuals possess.

Ultimately, however, they must recognize their own gifts and seek a path to pursue those gifts. In the case of budding performers, it may have translated into seeking mentors in an established choir or building skills in a focused training experience of some kind. (Camps, singing at smaller events.)

Without this step, the journey cannot begin. As we are learning, developing “soft skills” can be a game changer for both work and career. Self-development ranks up there with a “chosen few”.

When we educate students or less established employees about the world of work, techniques to stoke self-development strategies are commonly neglected. Yet, another “soft skill” that could change the course of an individual’s career.

Becoming your own advocate — and owning this process — can be a huge advantage.

Here are a few ideas to rectify this situation:

  • Encourage Self-Discovery. This involves reflecting on key experiences to unearth perceived strengths, as they complete their courses or begin to amass organizational experiences. Often the signs of an emerging strength are subtle and overlooked.
  • Teach “conversation”. Handling important, yet difficult, conversations is a needed workplace skill. When broaching development needs/desires, less established employees may feel insecure to move forward and open the channel.
  • Discuss the range of options. Ultimately, taking responsibility for development is personal. However, if you are unaware of the range of development possibilities, this all becomes moot.
  • Encourage balance. We must balance our need to drive self development with the needs of the organizations. However, both are vital to a healthy career.

What are you doing to develop your own career? Share your ideas here.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist, consultant and coach. She serves as Director of Organizational Development at Allied Talent, bringing the principles of The Alliance to organizations worldwide.

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The Everyday Guide to Workplace Confidence: Work Hard & Yes, Feel a Little Entitled

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Confidence — one very tough customer to master.

If you’ve ever stood tentatively in front of an audience or felt like an impostor after being praised or promoted, I would place a wager those nagging feelings were rooted in a lack of confidence.

When you consider confidence in the workplace, there are so many platitudes. However, few ring true. How do you truly “believe” in yourself, in the workplace moments that matter most to your future?

That simply cannot be addressed by rehearsed advice. But I’ve stumbled upon one perspective that may hit home. It stopped me cold.

I don’t often have the chance to read magazines. Yet, when I visit my corner hair salon, I leave my phone at home and unplug. I thumb through Glamour, Vogue, Allure. One  Glamour was written by Mindy Kaling. I do realize she is not a traditional career writer (as she’s an actress). However, she has managed to accomplish what few have in her industry.

Here is her thoughtful response to this question (posed by a nervous young girl at a speaking engagement), that she admittedly got all wrong in the moment: How did you build your confidence?

Her eventual answer was direct and unapologetic.

It went something like this (So sorry for the choice of words, they were hers and would lose something with an edit.): Work very hard. Know your $hit. Show your $hit. Then feel entitled.

I agree 100% that confidence is rooted in mastery. In experiences.

Confidence comes from building  feelings of self-efficacy in a wide range of situations. It requires challenge, mentorship, guidance and exposure. True confidence includes the notion that we are not entitled to rewards, simply because we desire them. Rewards often come with time.

  • Confidence comes from working hard and learning from those around you.
  • It requires patience and the belief that you can learn something from every person and every scenario.
  • It requires adequate feedback and reflection.
  • It is the deeper realization that you can handle the problems (and people) that stand before you.
  • Confidence is earned.

When you practice your craft — confidence is your entitlement.

  • Seek broad experiences and “challenge assignments”.
  • Develop a deep knowledge of your industry and its current experts.
  • Push yourself. Get up when you fall. Alter your course. Rebound.
  • Master the competencies, you may require ahead of the curve.
  • Always continue to learn.
  • Grow.

And then — yes — feel entitled to some measure of success. Seek the opportunities that reward your hard work.

Thanks Mindy.

That clears things up.

What are your thoughts about building confidence? Share them.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist, consultant and coach. She holds the role of Director of Organizational Development at Allied Talent, bringing the principles of The Alliance to organizations worldwide.

I Didn’t Take That Vacation: Here’s What Happened

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I didn’t have the opportunity to take a vacation this year. For some reason, the stars never aligned to make it happen. A few things contributed to the situation. I have a new role (along with my other commitments), and we are also renovating an older home. As you might expect, our resources have been diverted to goals such as staircases and a functional HVAC system. Then we just couldn’t agree on when and where to go. “Re-charging” just was not in the cards.

The outcome of my neglect feels very real. A little like pulling an all-nighter — with no desire to sit for the exam.

This is not a “good thing” — as Martha would say.

The research has shown that many of us fail to take time off, even when we have earned vacation days to do so. For some odd reason, we don’t like to admit that time off is necessary — or we fear we’ll look weak — or uncommitted to our work. This lack of attention to rest is costly in so many ways. I can only say, that if I’m representative of what it is like to not have a break, no one should skimp.

Sustaining “us” — is in part our own responsibility. We shouldn’t need to be reminded that we are important.

Here’s what has happened:

  • I’m observing signs of burn-out. Yes, I lack my usual level of enthusiasm for the tasks I normally love. I’ve coached myself to care, as the “Joy Factor” has taken a dip. That’s a sad commentary.
  • I’m losing my sense of humor, especially where work is concerned. I don’t laugh nearly enough — and laughing is vastly under-rated. We need these moments to off-set stress.
  • I’m a bit of a pain in the a##. I’m sure it has to do with the above. No further explanation needed. Sorry for the language.
  • Inspiration is waning. I require new sources of stimulation to stay at the top of my game. A change of scenery always does great things for me. We really shouldn’t expect to be at our best, after completing a year-long mental marathon.
  • I’m starting to fantasize about a new line of work. Now, this is simply ridiculous. However, I can easily see why many of us take these feelings as a sign that our roles are the problem. It’s not.

Here is what I’m doing:

  • I’m exploring my local environment. I’m unchaining myself from my desk and getting out there (cell phone muted). I’m stopping by the Farmer’s Market, and checking out the museums and gardens. Inspiration is really all around us.
  • I’m aiming to meet more people face-to-face.  I’m completely inspired by the career journeys of others. I’m making a point to visit college campuses this fall, to talk to students about their future work lives. (let me know if you’d like me to visit yours.)
  • I’m taking a series of shorter weekend trips. Nothing works like the real deal. Michigan is beautiful in the fall and I’m determined to see it.
  • I’m telling founders, managers and leaders to take their vacations (and to let everyone know). Nothing cements a needed change more completely, than a strong message that time off is a respected practice.

What are your strategies to take a break when vacations are impossible to schedule? Share your thoughts.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist, consultant and coach. She holds the role of Senior Consultant at Allied Talent, bringing the principles of The Alliance to organizations worldwide.

5 Ways to Solve Workplace Problems (and Avoid Burnout)

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Have a tough workplace problem that you just cannot seem to solve?

Frustrated?

Quickly reaching the “burnout” plateau?

You might think that increased perseverance always pays off. But in fact, this doesn’t always do the trick. In many cases, we need to change the game plan to make progress.

Here are 5 strategies that I use to power through a tough work-related dilemmas:

  • Watch comedy. Getting the current issue off your mind and breaking the cycle of tension is key. Personally, a great situational comedy or stand-up routine works quite well. We’ve all heard of the benefits of a good laugh in regard to stress and overall mood. Laughing can certainly offer a boost to your work life as well.
  • Listen to a TED Talk. I find that listening to great speakers inspirational. Somehow when their ideas start to flow, my brain wants to follow suit. (I’ve probably started 10 outlines on various topics.) Start with the best of TED right here.
  • Talk. Discuss the problem with someone you do not work with. In many cases, those not in the midst of our worries can draw parallels to issues that they have already solved in the past — and you are the lucky beneficiary. Keep the details to yourself if they are sensitive, but share the gist of the problem.
  • Walk. Last year, I vowed to walk every day.  (For the most part, I’ve kept that promise. Although I’m working on deep winter options. ) Even a brief stroll around the block, can clear your head and help you change gears. Get out there.
  • Rest. Yep. Sleep on it. We can resolve all sorts of issues in REM sleep — and your current problem may end up on the docket. (See the research on REM sleep and creative problem-solving here.) Take advantage of your body’s natural defenses against chaos and turn in early. Then be sure to have your notebook handy.

What are your strategies? Share them here.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist, consultant and coach. She holds the role of Senior Consultant at Allied Talent, bringing the principles of The Alliance to organizations worldwide.

Why We Hide From Feedback

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We needn’t debate the power of feedback.

However, regardless of its potential to enhance both work and career — its full benefit is not always realized. One obvious reason? Individual differences. Some of us are naturally more receptive to feedback — others — not quite as much. I’ve worked with clients who were completely open to feedback and absorbed the content effortlessly. Others experienced great difficulty processing its content and applying it effectively to their work lives.

The differences that exist among us concerning feedback, are not often acknowledged or addressed. As such, much of value that we might gain from feedback is left on the table.

We cannot deny that our predisposition toward feedback — what we bring to the equation — is critical.

So, how might we understand differences in how we approach feedback? Researchers have been examining a multifaceted construct, aptly named Feedback Orientation which captures a number of key elements that collectively influence our receptiveness. These elements include, perceived Utility (Our beliefs concerning the usefulness of feedback to help us reach desired goals or outcomes), Accountability (The belief that we should respond to given feedback), Social Awareness (The tendency to utilize feedback to gain a picture of our performance through others, and Feedback Self-Efficacy (An individual’s perceived competence to interpret and respond to feedback appropriately.)

Where we fall on the continuum has broad implications for performance development. Those of us with high feedback orientation, are more likely to seek feedback, perceive its value, process it effectively and find avenues to apply the information to their work. Those lower in feedback orientation, are not as likely to embrace the elements of the feedback cycle.

While Feedback Orientation may be stable in the shorter-term, it can be enhanced longer-term by addressing its components. We can learn how to process and apply feedback more effectively. With this, we might then view the entire process more favorably.

A few things to keep in mind.

As a manager:

  • Acknowledge individual differences. Feedback is indeed valuable — however, we do vary in terms of our receptiveness. Get a read from your staff on how they feel about feedback, their past experiences and what they find valuable. Discuss what needs to be communicated and how it is shared.
  • Develop a culture of feedback. Employees are more likely to be open to feedback when the environment consistently supports feedback-seeking behavior. But, first and foremost model this. (Seek feedback from your direct reports and act on it.) In return, offer honest feedback accompanied by coaching whenever possible. This should be on-going, frequent and not reserved for formal appraisals. A supportive climate is critical.
  • Offer time to process. Everyone deserves the opportunity to think about feedback — whether positive or negative — before they respond to it. We’re more likely to utilize the feedback, if this is built in to the process. Organizations that value continuous learning are ripe to gain the most.
  • Facilitate application. Once work-related feedback is delivered, offer help for employees to process and apply it to their work lives. Develop solutions to keep your employee moving forward. Feedback should enhance development — not derail it. Don’t ever “drop the bomb” and retreat.

As a contributor:

  • Be mindful of your individual orientation. Pause and examine your overall attitude toward feedback. Do you believe that feedback can help you reach desired outcomes? Many of us under-value feedback for a variety of reasons. As a result, we can’t take full advantage of its merits. Be mindful of your preconceived attitudes toward it. Ask yourself — are you a “doubter” or “supporter” of feedback.
  • Monitor your resistance to change. Feedback sets the stage for needed change, including how we work. This can be difficult to process and affect, as we become attached to our patterns of behavior. Attempt to open your mind and realize that change can help your progress. Approaching your work in a new way, can lead to a positive outcomes.
  • View it as another tool. Feedback can allow you to assess your “invisible resume” and help gain a read on the impression you leave with others. Although this can be a challenge to process, it can allow you to capture information not picked up through other channels.
  • Seek a feedback “mentor”. Formulate a plan to respond to feedback effectively — and seek out help to make this happen. This will help build self-efficacy and the overall feeling that the information is useful. This “translation” step, is often overlooked.
  • Overall, strive to give feedback a chance. This does not come naturally to us — as we can perceive feedback as a threat. However, try not to abandon ship. Remind yourself that learning to receive feedback effectively, is a worthy skill that can be honed over time.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist, consultant and coach. She holds the role of Senior Consultant at Allied Talent, bringing the principles of The Alliance to organizations worldwide.

One Simple Way to Offer College Students the Career Information They Need

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“Out of the mouths of babes” — a saying that often holds true. As time goes on, we can develop perspectives clouded in convention and negative experiences. Things can seem very complicated, when in fact they are not.

If you desire a fresh solution, seek someone with a fresh perspective. In this case, a recent college graduate. (I’ve mentioned him previously. See his LinkedIn profile here.)

Now on to the larger topic: The need to impart needed career information to college students. As you know, most college students will never pass through the doors of their University’s career center. Many will land in career paths unsuited to them. Even more may end up in a very quick career dead-end.

Why? They didn’t have the required facts to make an informed decision.

So why the hesitation to inform them? (It’s not that.) Colleges and universities want to inform their students and go to great lengths to do so. The glaring problem is securing their attention. So — my recent grad offered a brilliant solution: At the start of each and every semester in survey classes in Psychology, History, Chemistry…etc, tell them.

Yes, simply tell them.

Spend a half an hour addressing career paths, work settings and how they can make that content area work as a career. Share insights concerning the highs and lows. Discuss educational requirements. Don’t wait for that timid Freshman to rally the nerve to speak to the professor after class, about a decision that will affect the rest of their working life.

Inform them. Right alongside the review of the syllabus.

You already have a captive audience. Take advantage of the opportunity.

Makes sense, doesn’t it?

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist, consultant and coach. She holds the role of Senior Consultant at Allied Talent, bringing the principles of The Alliance to organizations worldwide.